Resources & References

You can learn more about this topic at the websites and publications listed below.


Evidence Photographers International Council (EPIC)

Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology (SWGIT)

Professional Photographers Association (PPA)

Stanford University Depth of Field

Stanford University Variables That Affect Exposure

Crime Scene Resources Crime Scene and Evidence Photography


Robinson, E. “Crime Scene Photography”, Second Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA (2010).

Law Enforcement & Emergency Services Video Association (LEVA) (accessed June 27, 2012).

National Center for Audio & Video Forensics (NCAVF) (accessed June 27, 2012).

DSLR Camera Simulator CameraSim, SLR Photography Demystified. (accessed June 27, 2012)

Levoy, Marc; Adams, Andrew; Dektar, Katie; Willett, Nora. Variables that Affect Exposure, 2011. Flash applets on some technical aspects of photography (Stanford University CS 179 - Digital Photography). (accessed June 27, 2012)

McHugh, Sean. Understanding Depth of Field. Cambridge in Color. (accessed June 27, 2012)


The authors wish to thank the following for their invaluable contributions to this forensic guide:

Scott Campbell, Ron Smith and Associates

Becky Carter, CEP, National Forensic Science Technology Center

Danny Nichols, National Forensic Science Technology Center

Denise Weigand, Forensic Investigator, Pasco County Sheriff’s Department

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